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What are the drilling tools and functions of drilling tools?Date:2018-11-1 17:19:43

Drilling tool
Drilling tools mainly include wellhead tools and downhole drilling tools. Wellhead tools are tools for lifting and unloading drilling tools, such as lifting forceps, lifting cards, slips, etc. The hanger is used for lifting and unloading all kinds of downhole drill threads. The hanger is used to hang, lift and lower drill strings. Slip is used for sticking drill strings and hanging on the turntable.




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Introduction of drilling tools

It includes drill bit, drill string, downhole power drilling tool, stabilizer, shock absorber, jar and other tools.

There are three kinds of rock breaking tools which are indispensable for drilling bits: cone bit, diamond bit and scraper bit.

(1) the roller bit is made up of drilling method, drill bit, tooth claw, roller, bearing and water eye. According to the structure of the cone, it can be divided into two types: milling tooth type and inserting tooth type, sealing (or not sealing) rolling bearing and sealing (or not sealing) sliding bearing. The cone bit is suitable for drilling various formations, and is currently the most widely used.

(2) diamond bits were originally used in hard formations only, and their varieties and scope of application are increasingly expanding. Although the price of the drill bit is high, its working life is long. If the selection is reasonable, it can achieve better economic results.

(3) The scraper bit has the advantages of simple structure, convenient manufacture and high drilling speed in soft formation, but it has a large torque and is easy to damage drilling tools and equipment. In recent years, a new type of cutting bit is being developed. It can be used in various lithologic formations and high speed drilling. The economic effect is becoming more and more remarkable.

The drill string consists of square drill pipe, drill pipe, drill collar, stabilizer joint and other accessories. The function is to take down the bit, transmit the mechanical energy needed to break the rock to the bit, exert drilling pressure on the bottom hole, transport well flushing fluid to the well and carry out other downhole operations.

The downhole power drilling tool is connected to the lower end of the drill pipe and is driven by the drill pipe to the bottom of the well.

There are mainly turbodrill, screw drill and so on.

(1) Turbine drilling tools pass through the turbine by high-pressure liquid, which transforms the liquid energy into mechanical energy on the central axis, driving the bit to break rock. It consists of hundreds of pairs of turbine stator and rotor installed in the casing, bearing and central shaft. Turbine drilling tools are the main drilling tools used in the Soviet Union. They have developed new turbodrills with various performances and are widely used in various depths and formations. Other countries are also developing in drilling operations, including drilling of 10000 meters well.

(2) The screw drill tool passes through the stator and rotor channel by high pressure mud, driving the rotor to rotate in the stator spiral channel, producing torque, driving the bit to break rock. The utility model is composed of a helical rotor mounted in a casing, a rubber stator bushing with a helical channel, a rotating shaft, a bearing, etc. It is a volumetric downhole power drilling tool. Its rotational speed is proportional to pump displacement, torque is proportional to pump pressure and drilling pressure. The drilling pressure can be indirectly indicated by pump pressure. Because of low speed, it is more advantageous to drill with roller bit.

Other tools

Stabilizer is commonly known as centralizer, connected to the bottom of the drill string on the drilling assembly, to prevent deviation or drilling directional wells, and is conducive to the smooth operation of the bit.

Drilling tool

The shock absorber is used to absorb the shock and vibration loads generated in drilling to improve the service life of bit and other drilling tools. Key components are different types of shock absorbing elements.

The jar can accumulate elastic energy to produce shock when the drill string is stretched elastically under tension. It can be used to deal with sticking accidents and is beneficial to safe drilling.

The fishing tool is a special tool for salvage the falling objects and dealing with underground accidents. Commonly used fishing tools are male cone, female cone, fishing tube, fishing spear, fishing basket, magnet salvage device, grinding shoes, safety joints and so on. When the sticking accident occurs, the sticking point is measured by the card measuring instrument, and then the jammed drilling tool screw is loosened by the explosion method. This method is very effective in dealing with the sticking accident.